In evaluating the role of the Franciscan order in medieval Bosnia, the fact that the western church had an earlier presence in Bosnia, a long time before the arrival of the Franciscans, shouldn\'t be ignored. As was pointed out earlier, the heretical "Bosnian church" itself grew out of the Bosnian Catholic diocese.
7th to 9th century.
First Croatian “official” language was Latin and Croatian name is recorded in Latin inscriptions of Croatian rulers (dukes and kings) in the 9th century.
Croats (and Serbs) remember many cruel and demeaning acts perpetrated by the Muslims, who acted as the protected privileged caste. These include many pogroms and murders of Franciscans, as well as the sale of Croats into slavery. As the decline of the Ottoman Empire set in, at the end of the 16th century, the Orthodox population came under increased attacks, and Sinan-Pasha in 1594. burned the bones of the Serbian Saint Sava. Acts like these gave impetus to collective revenge, or externalization of the aggression. The weakening of the Ottomans brought great fear and uncertainty to the Muslim population of Bosnia. In Christian offensives, the Bosnian Muslims were to pay for the sins of the Ottomans. The Christian armies acted brutally in showdowns with Islam. Sarajevo was razed to the ground in 1697.
Medieval Bosnia shared many characteristics with other South-Slavic states of the period. That political domain (not a state!) was established as a military commonwealth and functioned as a patriarchal family. Historian Nada Klaic makes a connection between the creation of the Bosnian political domain and the dominion of the Avars where the term "Ban" (used by Croatian and Bosnian leaders) originated. The Bosnian lands, having been politically organized along the same lines as the other South Slav countries, from the outset enjoyed independence which was to last for another 400 years.
In the first stage of the Croatian nation-state and the Croatian policy formation, there was a 100% possessiveness towards Bosnia: Bosnia was ours completely. The possessiveness was based on ethnogenesis: Muslims are Croats of Islamic religion, because they are of Croatian origin, and Serbs are either Croatian members of the Orthodox Church, or unwanted newcomers whom the possessiveness does not recognize as a participating factor... At the same time, even the Serbs have the analogous policy towards Bosnia, also based on ethnogenesis: only one nation lives in Bosnia, the Serbs, consisting of 3 different denominations... The third solution, which appears already in this first stage, is the Slavs or Yugoslavs "resolution", which purportedly annuls the conflict between the two antagonistic entities, uniting the three ethnicities into a single stream. All this happens while Bosnia is still under the suzerainty of the Turkish Empire.
|However, the luxurious and ornate representative texts of Croatian Church Slavonic belong to the later era when they coexisted with the Croatian vernacular literature. The most notable are the Missal of Duke Novak from Lika region in northwestern Croatia (1368), Evangel from Reims (1395, named after the town of its final destination), Missal of Duke Hrvoje from Bosnia and Split in Dalmatia (1404) and the first printed book in Croatian language (1483). Great migrations following the Ottoman invasion, the growing influence of Croatian or Bosnian Cyrillic and, finally, the prevalence of Latin script -both as the medium of western literature (sacral and secular) and the dominant, although not standardized Croatian script- all these factors spelled the doom of Glagolitic literacy. Croatian Glagolitic scriptory tradition died out, mainly, in the 17th century.|
The Ottoman invasion was unleashed towards Bosnia, but Bosnian aristocrats at the end of the 14th and the beginning of the 15th century, such as Hrvoje Vukcic Hrvatinic and Stjepan Kosaca, were almost solely preoccupied with their parochial power games and preservation of influence spheres.
2000 B.C.E.- the formation of Balto-Slavic linguistic family.
|Romanesque impulses arrived in Bosnia and Herzegovina from Adriatic Coast and from the territory of Hungarian-Croatian state. Having in mind that these provinces alone represented outskirts of the West, they acted as a filter when it comes to style, taste and ideas. Bosnia on the other hand tended to isolate itself politically from the territories ruled by Hungarian Arpadovic dynasty, and this political orientation is reflected in lower level of cultural and artistic osmosis. Fund of Romanesque monuments in these parts, similar to the rest of Europe, is curtailed by great losses.|
Once a Dominican church of St.Anthony's, and nowadays mosque Fethija in Bihac, is the oldest edifice of Gothic style on the territory that Bosnia and Herzegovina covers today. The church was built around 1266 as the village gained rank of the free royal city (1262). The church of St. Nicholas in Mile near Visoko was in the forties of the 14th century constructed upon the ruins of the above mentioned Romanesque edifice. The building contained a wide square space intended for worshippers and an elongated choir stalls with trilateral end pointing towards East.The corners were reinforced with counterphore and windows with pointed apses were perforated with stone lace. Great deal of churches had a rectangular choir-stalls: the church of St. Mary in Srebrenica, Zvornik, Olovo,Jajce,the church of St. Catherine in Kresevo and the church of St. Gregory in Kraljeva Sutjeska. They all belonged to the same type called preaching churches and according to regulations of the order they were all modestly equipped. Close connections with Dalmatia are visible on the monuments in Jajce; the parts of richly sculptured Phial from the church of St. Mary can be ascribed to the Bonino Circle from Milan (1429), and an unknown edifice on the fortress was adorned in a manner resembling to the work of Andrija Alesi (1430 - 1504).
In the dynastic crisis and the wars that followed the death of King Louis I Angevin in 1382, the Croatian nobility played the leading role. Nevertheless, the members of the Croatian nobility did not have enough power to turn that crisis to their own advantage by supporting a king of their own choice to mount the throne. The alliance with the Bosnian king was in that respect of little use since Stephan Tvrtko I availed himself of the opportunity of the existing political conflicts to extend his power to the Dalmatian cities and the areas in the south of Croatia. The party disunion, dissension and irreconcilableness with the crowning of Sigismund Luxembourgian King of Hungary and Croatia was silently supported by the Venetian Republic that wished to regain its power and rule over the Dalmatian cities and the coastal part of Croatia. New developments of the situation were turning gradually to the advantage of Venice, which inevitably lead to the destruction of unity of the Croatian territories, which in turn could not be opposed by either the nobility or King Sigismund. The separation of this area from its hinterland was disastrous for Croatia, while at the same time its north-eastern part was under even greater threat. The defeat suffered by the Serbian army at Kosovo polje in 1389 smoothed the way for the Ottoman Empire toward Hungary and Croatia, the targets of their future campaigns and military expeditions. Already in 1391 the area between the rivers Drava, Danube and Sava was exposed to violent attacks of the Ottoman light cavalry, which plundered, devastated and annihilated everything along their way, showing thus what kind of an enemy was to fight. Thanks to personal courage and decisiveness of Ivan Morovic Viceroy of Macva, this attack was repulsed; however, the whole region became deserted and the frightened population evacuated from their settlements.
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